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雅思作文-最全替换词汇


第一类: 巨 大 : big-colossal/ enormous/ immense/ gargantuan/ grandiose/ massive/ monolithic/ prodigious/ titanic/ tremendous 小的: small-diminutive/ miniature/ miniscule 快的(副词):fastly—by leaps and bounds 加 强 : strengthen-bolster/ buttress/ consolidate/ reinforce/ intensify/ fortify (可以 用在 argument) 强 的 : strong-brawny/ muscular/ sinewy/ impregnable/ invincible/ potent/ robust/ virile/ stalwart/ stout/ sturdy 强人: baron(巨头) magnate/ mogul 削 弱 : weaken-diminish / debilitate/ enervate/ sap/ undermine/perish/wane 弱的: weak—feeble/ decrepit/ frail/ flaccid/ impotent/ puny/ tenuous 重 要 的 : important – consequential/ momentous/ eminent/ prominent/ pivotal/ substantial/ significant/ crucial/ essential/ fundamental 重 要 : importance—core/ hub/ essence/ gist/magnitude (类似的) 居 首 位 的 : leading—foremost/ paramount/ overriding /predominant/ prevailing/ preeminent prevalent/ supreme 不 重 要 的 : unimportant — marginal/ peripheral/ negligible/ trifling/trivial 超 过 :

embark/ inaugurate 开始:begin/start=undertake / embark upon 增长: grow—multiply/mushroom/proliferate/ sprout/accelerate/ burgeon(慢慢增长) 使 其 增 长 : increase--amplify/ magnify/ add-augment/ supplement 加 重 , 升 级 aggravate ( 恶 化 ) / escalate/ exacerbate/ deteriorate/ impair 减 少 , 减 弱 : decrease — abate/attenuate/ detract/ diminish/ slacken/curb/ curtail/ (number)pare/ prune/ slash/ trim/ whittle/ 减 轻 decrease---allay/ assuage/ mollify/ soothe/mitigate/ 变 弱 decrease — dwindle/ ebb/ subside/ wane/ weaken/ impair 上 升 : ascend— lift / surge/ rocket/ boast/ soar/ boom 达到顶峰 culminate 顶点: peak—acme/apex/ pinnacle/ climax/ apogee n. 远 地 点 / zenith(nadir 最 低 点 or abyss 深 渊 ) (zenith&nadir 特别适合用在比喻 强调两者的区 别大~两个词的来源大家可以查查~两个对比强烈 哦 ) 下 降 : descend/ plummet/ plunge/ slump/ tumble (fluctuate 波动) 三 gather 聚拢:accumulate/ amass/ assemble/ congregate/ garner/ glean/ muster/ rally(为 反对或支持而召集) group 群组:battalion/ bevy/ cluster/ drove/ flock/ swarm/ throng combination 集 合 : assortment/ medley/ mosaic(马赛克)/ motley(五花八门:形容词也 可以) a lot of/ a great many of= manifold 许多 – abundant/ ample(充足) / copious(大量的)/ fraught with/ replete with/ numerous/ innumerable( 不 计 其 数 )/ myriad 很 多 / a multitude of/ multitudes of/ a myriad of 无数 的 人 们 / limitless 无 限 的 / a deluge of/ beaucoup <法> adj.非常多的 (很多同学都喜欢用~a lot of~a great number of~这里注意:numerous 这里表达的不是无数很 多那样~之表示一般的多~这一点从 G 猫老外改得

surpass—eclipse/exceed/override/overwhel ming/prevail/transcend/ be superior to/ outwit / outweigh / be inferior to(劣于)= be subordinate to 霸权: ascendancy/hegemony/supremacy 二 初 始 : beginning — debut/premiere/ prime/ genesis/ inception/ onset/ threshold/ lead off/ lead out (比 to begin with 好得多拉 ) (或者说什么的到来:advent of something) 初 始 的 : beginning-- primitive//budding/ fledgling/ embryonic/ (古老的意义解时 archaic or antiquated or obsolescent or obsolete) 开 始 : begin/start — commence/ initiate/

一篇文章可以看到) large quantity: 大量:avalanche/ spate(比喻 意大量的某物) / exodus 大量流出/ 大量流入 influx/ multitude 大量 / plethora 比喻意:大量 / profusion 丰富,繁多 拥有大量:boast/ abound / deluge(被大量的某 物所淹没)/ teem 到处 散 开 : spread- dispel( 驱 散 )/ disperse/ disseminate 稀 少 的 : scarce/ meager/ scant/ scanty/ skimpy/ sparse/ dearth 节俭的:frugal/ thrifty/ miserly/ 富 裕 的 : rich- affluent/ lavish/ luxurious/ opulent/ sumptuous/ palatial 浪费的:improvident/ prodigal son(浪荡子) =improvident/ profligate 贫 困 的 : poor= destitute/ impoverished/ impecunious/ indigent (形容人) 四 困 难 的 : difficult= arduous/ strenuous/ daunting/ formidable/ exacting/ insuperable/ impassable/ onerous(issue 中 大量存在"困难"的表达) 困 境 : ( 陷 入 困 难 的 处 境 就 是 困 难 )difficult situations= deadlock/ impasse/ stalemate/ dilemma/ predicament/ quandary/ mire 泥沼 / morass/ swamp/ quagmire/ standstill 停止, 僵局/ labyrinth 迷宫(很好的比喻的说法~可以说 什么问题把我们陷入了一个迷宫~僵局等~) 陷入:reduce/ get bogged down/ plunge into 复杂的:complicated/ intricate/ complex/(这 里 介 绍 一 个 很 好 的 押 韵 的 方 法 : complex and perplexed/ complicate and intricate or sophisticated 用在表达困难的地方可以显示出词 汇的完善更能有一种押运修辞的效果~读起来琅琅 上口) 复 杂 的 事 情 : imbroglio/ mesh/ tangle/ labyrinth 迷宫= maze 卷入复杂的境地:involve= embroil/ ensnare/ entangle 从复杂境地脱身:escape= extricate 难 以 理 解 : abstruse/ recondite/ intricate/ arcane 只有少数人可以理解=esoteric/ cryptic 简短却令人迷惑/ enigmatic 谜一般的 enigma

形容词形式/ inexplicable 无法解释/ inscrutable 无 法 捉 摸 =unfathomable/ mysterious/ supernatural/ mystical/ extraterrestrial (这里的词很多都表示 难以理解~ 很多题目学习 类~教育类~社会类~历史类~艺术类~只要表示某 某问题把我们难倒了都可以用) 迷 mystery-puzzle= enigma/ conundrum/ riddle/迷宫 labyrinth/ maze 令 人 迷 惑 : puzzle = baffle/ befuddle/ bewilder/ confound/ mystify/ perplex 令 人 沮 丧 : depressed= with depression/ frustrating/ daunting/ dismal/ 使可以理解:clarify= elucidate/ enlighten 启迪 教 化 / explicate 阐 明 / expound on/upon /illuminate 照亮说清楚 可以理解的:intelligible = explicit/ lucid 阻 碍 : hindrance 名 次 = fetter/ shackle/ trammel 枷锁桎梏/ onus 负担重任 阻碍:动词 hamper = encumber 造成负担/ foil/ stymie/ thwart 阻 碍 或 者 挫 败 工 作 完 成 / handicap/ hinder/ impede/ retard 压 制 : smother/ stifle 令 人 窒 息 , 压 制 约 束 suppress/ pin down 协助促进:aid = facilitate/ foster/ nurture/ buttress/ 五 著 名 的 : famous = celebrated/ renowned/ reputed/ distinguished/ illustrious/ prestigious/ outstanding/ distinctive/ eminent/ notable/ noticeable/ striking/ remarkable/ preeminent be famous for = take pride in elite= meritocrat (meritocracy n. 知 识 界 精 华)(用上的话超级有文采~嘻嘻) 有特色:feature = savor/ 因为什么而闻名可用 famous 一系列 臭 名 昭 著 : disreputable = infamous/ notorious/ nefarious 因为极坏而臭名昭著 好的名声:reputation = esteem/ prestige 坏 的 名 声 : disgrace/ disrepute/ ignominy/ infamy/ odium/ opprobrium/ stigma 不好的 声誉,耻辱。 尊重 名次:respect = reverence/ veneration/ homage

高尚的:noble = rarefied/ sublime/ lofty 不尊重 名次:disrespect = scorn 蔑视 招人轻视的:contemptible = despicable 尊重: 动词 idolize/ worship/ lionize 对待名人一 样的崇拜/ revere 敬爱,敬畏 不尊重:动词 disrespect/ deride/ scoff 嘲笑/ despise/ disdain/ slight/ snub 赞 扬 : 名 次 praise= accolade 赞 美 , 奖 项 / approbation/ encomium/ eulogy/ panegyric/ plaudit/ tribute/ tribute 用来表示赞美的行为或 者发言 赞美:动词 praise = acclaim/ applaud/ hail 欢 呼/ commend/ extol/ laud 高度的,常常带有美 化成分的赞美 应该受到谴责的:形容词 reprehensible 谴 责 : condemn= censure/ denounce/ reprimand/ decry/ deprecate/ deplore 叹惋/ lament 叹惋 / remonstrate 争辩,申辩 责备:admonish/ reproach/ reprove 温和的责 备 严厉责备:动词 berate/ castigate/ chastise/ chide/ excoriate/ inveigh/ rail/ upbraid 令人讨厌的事物:名次 anathema 谩骂的:abusive/ vituperative revile/

有益的:形容词:hygienic/ sanitary 广义的卫生 的/ salutary/wholesome 有益身心的 有害的事物: bane 致命的毒药 / blight 植物的枯 萎病/ 损 害 : harm = blemish/ deface/ disfigure/ eviscerate/ impair 减损/main mutilate 毁伤肢 体/ mar/spoil 破坏 demolish 有益的事物:antidote 解毒药/ remedy 药物:纠 错/ panacea 万能良药 elixir 炼金药,万能药(有 贬义含义)/ boon 赐福 blessing / tonic 补药 改善:improve = ameliorate/ amend/ 对法律 的修改/ rectify/ redress/ 毁 坏 , 毁 灭 : destroy/ annihilate 彻 底 消 灭 / exterminate 终 结 / eliminate/ eradicate/ decimate/ demolish/ dismantle/ raze 彻底摧 毁夷为平地/ devastate/ ravage/ wreck 遭受重 创, 严重破坏/ obliterate 擦去/ pulverize 磨成粉 末状/ subvert 颠覆 可 怕 的 : awful = horrible/ terrible/ tragic/ wretched / dire 复 苏 , 复 兴 动 词 : revive= rejuvenate/ resurrect/ resuscitate/ revive 动荡的, 混乱的 形容词: tumultuous/ turbulent/ 混 乱 : 名 词 : chaos/ confusion/ disorder / mayhem/ disarray/ havoc 大面积的破坏-混乱 pandemonium 撒旦居住的地方, 比喻嘈杂, 混乱 的地方/ shambles 废墟/ turmoil 混乱,动荡/ upheaval 突发的巨变 灾难:calamity/ cataclysm/ catastrophe 危险 名词:danger/ hazard/ peril 危 险 的 : hazardous/ perilous/ precarious/ treacherous 危及:动词 endanger/ compromise/ imperil/ jeopardize 保护:protect = safeguard 表示进步,提高的动词: improve ameliorate better develop remedy revise enhance enrich upgrade refine 重要,关键: important significant consequential momentous considerable essential valuable distinctive great weighty major serious grave vital capital substantial material; 稍 微 扯 得 远 一 点 的 还 有

六 有害的事物:harmful things= contagion 传染病瘟疫 epidemic/ pandemic 也 有流行的意思/pestilence/ plague 疾病:malady 瘴气:miasma 比喻意为有害的气 氛或者影响 灾患:scourge 不再害怕看到世界中心深处的毒气:unafraid to look deep into the miasma at the heart of the world. 有害的:harmful = deleterious/ detrimental/ noxious/ toxic/ virulent/ monstrous/ murderous 邪 恶 的 : evil/ devil= cruel/ crude/ brutal/ wicked/ vicious/ malicious/ atrocious/ virulent/ venomous / sinister/ hafarious/ vicious/ pernicious/ destructive/ detrimental 致命的: fatal/ lethal 前两个并非贬义/ pernicious 极其有害的

conspicuous striking prominent eminent noticeable 正确的,无误的: correct rectify accurate precise proper undistorted right impeccable 增长和减少(这个超级常用!) increase rise extend magnify decrease reduce fall amplify aggrandize elongate intensify enhance prolong strengthen curtail shrink terminate lessen abate raise boost intense(intensify) expand augment enlarge diminish dwindle(swindle 是诈骗的意思) slump 和证明相关的: justify warrant assert claim contend argue validate substantiate verify accuse assign indict allege affirm 论题: statement claim declaration assertion opinion belief view conviction persuasion 要求 request demand needs requisition 撤销 to cancel; to revoke; to countermand; [Law] to rescind; to quash 建立 to build up; to establish; to set up; to found; to take root; to strike root 消除 to eliminate; to clear; to remove; to clear up; to take away; to smooth away 推理 1.[Logic] inference; reasoning; deduction; ratiocination 2.to reason 3.to put two and two together 相应 1.corresponding; relevant; relative; fitting; appropriate 2.accordingly; correspondingly; by the same token; in a corresponding way 3.to correspond to; to act in responses; to work in concert with; to support each other 导致 1.to lead to; to bring about (or on); to result in; to cause; to spark off; t o conduce to; to procure; to induce; to generate

后果 a consequence; an aftermath; an outcome 检查 to inspect; to check; to examine; to look over; to put to the test; to keep a check on 发(奖品) prize reward award grant assign confer(on) honor fame credit contribution acknowledgement recognition 表示程度的副词 very strikingly greatly highly insatiably exceedingly dreadfully remarkably drastically dramatically 足够 sufficient adequate enough 剩下几个也是常用的 present justify practicable hence consequently examination accountable responsible twist and turn 迂回曲折 might and main 尽全力 part and parcel 重要部分 safe and sound 安然无恙 spick and span 崭新的,极干净的 time and tide 岁月,时光 go to rack and ruin 陷于毁灭 slow and sure 慢而稳,稳妥 hale and hearty 老当益壮 chop and change 变幻莫测(尤指观点,计划等) fair and foul 在任何情况下 weal and woe 福祸 sum and subs tance 主要情况,要点(尤指讲话 的主要部分) forgive and forget 不念旧恶 wax and wane (月的)盈亏圆缺;盛衰 1 inferno 地狱,可与幸福生活形成强烈对比

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the inferno of war inky 用于个人在生活上或科研道路上的 迷茫 the inky darkness of one’s pursuit of own destiny promulgate 公布,颁布法令,新法律 promulgate a belief, and idea, a theory, etc the promulgation of a treaty latency 如作者主张尚未表现出的危险或 其主张的长远作用 latent---latent ability , a latent infection after a careful examination, it is no need to go too far to sense that the author’s claim underlies a latency of peril to both personal and even societal degree./ lurks a latency of profound implication. Connotation 内涵,言外之意――― Hollywood always holds connotation of romance and glittering success. 贬 义词 derogatory connotation Motivate / ignite 用于深究心理方面深 层的原因,或者内因 be motivated by greed, fear, love a teacher who can motive her pupils Nectar 在描写艺术方面的享受时有用, 甘露, Emulate 仿效,主要用于名人的作用 emulative 好胜的 责 任 obligation , responsibility, liability 重 要 paramount the reduction of 17 18

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chaos the country was in a turmoil during the strike. There was uproar over the tax increases. Left in a state of chaos Rote learning 死记硬背的方法 Reminisce 缅 怀 美 好 的 往 事 reminiscence 怀旧 reminiscence of my youth Halcyon 太 平 盛 世 halcyon times

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the halcyon days of youth Quietude 平静寂静 equability 平和宁 静 Equanimity 镇 静 she maintained her equanimity throughout her long ordeal. Impassivity 泰然自若 Equilibrium 平 衡 均 势 disturb the equilibrium of the chains of natural environment. Balance -----try to achieve a better balance between work and play. This newspaper maintains a good balance in its presentation of different opinions. Placidity 平 静 the placidity of his temperament Deformity 畸形,用于形容教育中重视一方 面忽视另一方面 Lapse 小错失足 a lapse from grace 失宠 lapse into 陷入 lapse back into bad habits 时间流逝 lapse into a coma after a lapse of several guilty of some mild

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unemployment should be paramount in the government’s economic policy Ponder 1 深思 pondering on the meaning of life Delve in/ into 探索,钻研,起源 28 a 29 30 31 32 33

decades Peccadillo 小过失

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writer delving in medieval French literature delve into the origins of the custom Blood 根源 of the same blood 演绎推理 deduce 追溯源头 Augment 增 加 提 高 continuing rains augment the flood waters. 混乱 turmoil uproar pandemonium

peccadillo Falsity 谬误错误 Menace 威 胁 , 危 害

nuclear weapons

are a menace to world peace Jeopardize 破坏危害 jeopardous Imperil 危害 the security of the country had been imperiled Transient 转瞬即失的 success transience transient transient

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years is not enough to make the conclusion Ephemeral 短暂的 ephemeral pleasure Permanent permanency Angle 角度 permanence try looking at the

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of peace 修 辞 手 法

metaphor

onomatopoeia rhetoric Crusade (为争取好的或反对坏的事物的) 斗争或运动 a crusade against corruption Transatlantic 大西洋彼岸的,横越大西洋的

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affair from a different angle Facet 方面角度 there are many facets to this question Dissimilitude 不同不同之处 表示实用的功利的 utilitarian function pragmatic utilitarianism pragmatism 神 话 ( 用 于 艺 术 类 的 issue 中 ) mythology 神 化 apotheosis apotheosize 寓 言 allegory fable 圣歌 psalm anthem hymn 亵 渎的 profane 圣乐和俗乐 scared and profane music 神灵 saint Didactic 教诲的,说教的 教诲 edification inculcate Elicit 表示竞争极其后果的词 良性竞争 good-natures rivalry 恶 性 竞 争 、 循 环 vicious circle 憎恨 antipathy Salvation 拯救(描写精神,崇高事业时) redemption Mundane 世俗的 Ethnocentrism 民主优越感 racialism racism 种族主义 nationalism 民族主 义 chauvinism 沙 文 主 义 patriotism patriotic 爱国主义 Ingrained 根深蒂固的 注 定 predestine destine foreordain Populace 平民 描写文化差异/ 相同的词语 shock 设 身 处 地 的

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transatlantic flight, voyage, telephone call a transatlantic trade agreement 55 Tottering 蹒跚的 56 Recidivism 累犯 57 Space crunch 空间紧缩 crunch 58 表示渠道的词 channel vehicle 59 Melancholy 忧郁 60 Epithet 绰号 61 Pernicious 有害的 62 Proclivity 倾向 63 家谱 genealogy pedigree 64 政府行为 stipulation of a poverty line 环境: delicate balance upon which animals—including human—depend (ecosystem)生态平衡 the depletion of the atmospheric ozone 臭氧 空洞 extinct species, serious pollution of water, excessive cutting of jungles and rainforests consumption of the earth’s finite natural resources 社会问题 rely on labor force, equipment, and raw materials of developing countries 企业的需 求 increased crime, unemployment, insurrection, hunger, plague, and so forth vicious competition, vicious circle, monopoly 经济问题 恶性竞争,垄断 科技: 1. impact on daily life/ saturated every aspects in our daily routine 科技深入生活 2. we need to control the development and use of technological innovation so that they benefit all aspects of community 防止科技危

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cultural vicarious

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vicariously vicarious pleasure, satisfaction be acclimatized to assimilation cultural homogenization 文化适应 acculturation Emblem 象征 the dove is an emblem

害生活: Although scientific discoveries and technological advances have produced tremendous improvement in the quality of human life, they also have negative consequences. nuclear power, chemical plants, ? threaten our life 教育: education always plays a key role in determining a person’s success 教育决定成功 we must be conscious of our obligations to help those who are truly infirm, aged or incapable of providing for themselves 公民 的责任,帮助困难人员 教育的目的 the primary purpose for education is to transmit democratic values, innovative ideas and so that it can prepare new generations of citizens in society, rather than simply instilling information and knowledge. 儿童社会化行为:negotiate, bargain, cajole, compromise, conflict, deceive. 领导教育 value the input of subordinates, by involving them in decisions about matters or strategies 接受下属意见 a leader’s effectiveness as a competitor is not necessarily inconsistent/ exclusive with his or her ability to cooperate with subordinates or competitors. 合作与竞争不矛 盾 冷门热门学科 Students often fail to see the practicality of studying Shakespeare as preparation for a career in business 成功 vs 失败 success and failure are not opposites, they are both products of the same process an activity which produces a hit also produce a miss 压力 economic pressure, parental pressure, peer pressure, self-induced pressure 艺术:

例子
人格 honesty persistence civil rights Innovation Michael Dell 人 Abe Lincoln Columbus 事 walk three miles to return 6 cents voyage the Declaration of Independence Personal selling of computers

政治,经济名人例子 人 Churchill Jack Welch Eisenhower Copernicus Aristotle Plato 事 WWII, lecturer CEO of General Electric Company Commander Heliocentric system Geocentric theory Spiritual Love 结论 政治 leader 经济 leader 军事 leader 挑战权威成 功 权威 柏拉图

a critic’s evaluation of an art work serves as a filter, which helps us to determine which art is worth our time and attention 评论家的作用 a critic’s assessment is limited by the narrow confines of old and established parameters of evaluation 评论 家有限眼光扼杀艺术

例子
艺术家 Michelangelo Mozart Mark Twain Sigmund Freud Leonardo Vinci Victor Hugo Margaret Mitchell da Music Best-selling writer The founder psyche Painting Romantic author of Mona Lisa 专业 作品

Les Miserable 悲 惨 世 界 Gone With the wind

Shakespeare Vincent Gogh van Expression, Abstraction Early

Hamlet Sunflower

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写作常用短语 continuing controversy 长久未解决的问题 anything but 决不是 run contrary to common sense and daily experience 与 常理相悖 Any government, which is blind to this point, will pay a heavy price. 政府职责 spare no effort to 不遗余力 even if; even assuming 即使 常用难拼的学科及学家 anthropologist 人类, archeologist 考古, biochemist 生物化学, geologist 地质, linguist 语言, astronomer 天文, psychoanalyst 精神分析, philosopher 哲学家 1. counterproductive adj.产生相反效果(结 果)的 e.g. It is counterproductive to be too tough: it just makes the staff resentful. e.g. Although the speaker overlooks certain circumstances in which undue skepticism might be counterproductive, and even harmful, on balance I agree that we should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance. 2. seminal adj.萌芽的,潜在的;开创性的; 有重大影响的 e.g. in the seminal state (在萌芽状态)|| seminal thoughts || seminal principle(基本原 则) e.g. a seminal book/poet || This experiment was to have a seminal influence on his own political development. 3. forgo v. 放 弃 (The choice to forgo his security is always available, although it might carry unpleasant consequence) 4. intuition n.直觉 (I will trust my strong intuition that free will is an essential part of our being as humans.) 5. justify v.证明是正当的,公证的;为…寻 找正当理由 e.g. Such action can be justified on the grounds of greater efficiency. e.g. In the final analysis, government cannot philosophically justify assisting large cities for the purpose of either promoting or preserving the nation's cultural traditions; nor is government assistance necessary toward

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these ends. resort to … 诉诸… e.g. no necessity to resort to violent actions such as demonstration, riot or rebel. conduce hinge on … 以…为转移,靠…转动 e.g. The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement at best. at best 最多,充其量;以最乐观的观点来看 collaborate to … e.g. For example, scientists, researchers, and even computer programmers must collaborate to establish common goals, coordinate efforts, and meet time lines. lend some credence to … 提供支持 e.g. While our everyday experience might lend credence to this assertion. e.g. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics lend some credence to this position, by suggesting that these determining physical forces include our own individual genetic makeup. dimension n.大小;体积;程度;范围 e.g. a creature of huge dimensions. || I did not realize the dimensions of the problem. e.g. There is a dimension to the problem that we have not discussed. || various dimensions of human experience. detractor n.损毁者;贬低者 amount to … 相当于;等于 e.g. What you say amounts to a direct accusation. e.g. Even where a fiction work amounts to pure fantasy, with no historical context, it can still hold more lasting significance than a factual account. fruit ion n.享用, 结果实, 成就, 实现 e.g. It is the famous few that provide vision of the future, visions which groups then bring to fruition. e.g. bring one's plans to fruition || After years of hard work, his hopes came to fruition. reap v.收获;收割 (The consumer reaps rich rewards from this competitive spirit.) inspire v.激励或鼓舞 e.g. To begin with, learning about key historical figures inspires us to achieve great things ourselves --- far more so than learning about the conditions of groups of people. provide necessary impetus for … 给与… 动力 e.g. It is almost always a key individual who provide the necessary imputes for what

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otherwise might be a group effort, as discussed below. favor v.赐予;给与 e.g. He was favored with great intelligence. || adduce facts to favor one’s contention. paradigm n.样式; 典范; 范例 (educational paradigms) obscure v.使阴暗;使朦胧 e.g. Generally speaking, then, undue attention to the efforts and contributions of various groups tends to obscure the cause and effect relationship with which the study of history is chiefly concerned. take steps to … (take step to help alleviate social problems) serve useful purposes for … e.g. I agree insofar as some common core curriculum would serve useful purposes for any nation e.g. immediate disclosure would have served no useful purpose and might even have resulted in mass hysteria. nascent adj. 初 生 的 ( in a nascent condition/stage/state || a nascent industry/ literature/art) reach a (fully informed) consensus as to …对于达成共识 unfettered adj.除去脚镣的;自由而不受约 束的 irrespective of whether … 无论如何 e.g. While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial. draw a distinction between … ( One useful approach is to draw a distinction between personal morality and public morality) catalyst n.催化剂;刺激因素 e.g. circumstance often serves as a catalyst for heroism. account for …解释原因 e.g. This combination of very high density of population, goods and services, and machines, all increasing with almost brutal speed, does account for some really antisocial tendencies in modern urban growth. proviso n.限制性条款;(附带)条件 e.g. The carpenter agreed to do the work, with the proviso that he was paid in advance. e.g. Aside from the two forgoing provisos, however, I fundamentally disagree with the speaker’s claim. conversely adv. 相 反 的 ( They hold

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converse opinion || Without knowledge, we can hardly survive through abominable conditions, depending solely on the admiration of the beings derived from imagination. Conversely, without imagination, we can as well not possible to get through due to the impediment of knowledge and the depletion of spiritual asylums.) core values upon which any ( democratic ) society depends to thrive. 一个社会赖以繁荣的价值核心 be superior (in …) to … 比更好,更优秀 e.g. this engine is superior in every respect to that. || whenever moving images are central to an event the video camera is superior to a written word. proceeding n. 行 动 , 进 行 , 会 议 录 , 学 报 ( legal proceeding || governmental proceedings) thwart v.反对;妨碍;挫败 e.g. the government’s strategies for thwarting specific plans of an international terrorist or a drug trafficker. public panic 公众恐慌 unprecedented adj.空前的,史无前例的 (the society is changing at a speed which is quite unprecedented) inexorable adj. 不可阻挡的;坚持不懈的; 无 情 的 ( Facts are inexorable || the inexorable march of science) Science is on the march. || the march of science/events/time make great effort 努 力 ; make every effort 尽一切努力;overcome a myriad of political impediments 克服政治障碍 a myriad of 无数,数不清 (Each galaxy contains myriad of stars) while parochial social problems go unsolved. || mitigate( 缓 和 ) the problems || address pressing social problems take precedence over … e.g. This interest might take precedence over the historic value of an old structure that stands in the way of a parking structure. strike a balance among competing interest serve as a substitute for …取代… be superseded by 代替;取代 e.g. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superseded by simpler, more immediate options.

45. 源自于: emerge from … (in every age and culture some worthwhile art and literature emerges from the mediocrity.) stem from … (prevailing attitudes about sexual morality stem from the ideas of key religious leaders) spring from… e.g. this desire to identify oneself with an exclusive social group seems to spring from some innate psychological need to define one's self through one's personal associations. 46. 坏影响;负面影响: detrimental effects of … (In politics, the detrimental effects of competition are blatant.) negative/adverse effects on/to 47. 名人 notable figures celebrity elite personality (television personalities) 48. 普遍;普及 prevailing adj.普遍的;流行的;占优势的 (the prevailing view in Western corporate culture || prevailing principle) popular adj. prevalent adj. (The habit of traveling by aircraft is becoming more prevalent each year.) 49. 灌输;教育 instill v. (Courtesy must be instilled in childhood || Morality may be instilled into their minds) inculcate v. (inculcate the young with a sense of duty.) impart v. ( A good teacher imparts wisdom to his pupils.) foster v.养育, 抚育, 培养, 鼓励(Frequent cultural exchange will certainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities. || detect and foster artistic talent. || to foster an interest in music) nurture v.养育, 给与营养物, 教养 (While the speaker might overlook the benefits of nurturing certain emotions and feels, on balance I agree that …) 50. 充满;装满 be laden with … (History is laden with unusual claims || be laden with responsibility) be replete with … ( Modern politics is replete with examples of what most people

would consider personal ethical fallings) be fraught with … (a complex issue that is fraught with the problems of defining ethics, morality, and successful leadership) 51. 癖性;偏好 idiosyncratic adj.特性的; 癖性的 (Given a choice they will pursue their own idiosyncratic area of interest.) inclination n.(follow one's own inclination || I have no inclination to be a doctor.) 52. 若干重;若干刃 a double-edged sword 双刃剑 e.g. This type of advertisement can be a doubt-edged sword, when the product does not make the person “be like” the person in the advertisement, there can be disappointment and disillusionment with the product. a two-edged weapon 双重武器 e.g. As is so often pointed out, knowledge is a two-edged weapon which can be used equally for good or evil. twofold/threefold/manifold adj. 双 重 / 三重/多种 e.g. We have to ask ourselves very seriously what will happen is this twofold use of knowledge, with its ever-increasing power, continues. e.g. The City Council has a manifold plan to beautify the city. 53. have little bearing on …与…无关 e.g. Moreover, assisting large cities would have little bearing on our distinct cultural traditions, which abide elsewhere. with respect to… 关于 e.g. Personal economic success might be due either to one's investment strategy or to one's work or career. With respect to the former, non-conformists with enough risk tolerance and patience invariably achieve more success than conformists. With respect to the latter, while non-conformists are more likely to succeed in newer industries where markets and technology are in constant flux, conformists are more likely to succeed in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations. 54. 先天的,天生的 innate adj.先天的, 天生的 (Correct ideas are not innate in the mind, but come from social practice.) [O] acquired adj.后天习得的 inborn adj.天生的 (an inborn sense of the

appropriate || inborn intelligence) 55. 利用;有益于 conduce to 有助于 e.g. encouraging students to question and criticize is conducing to the development of democratic spirits. be beneficial to … e.g. A national core curriculum would be beneficial to a nation in a number of respects. harness v.利用 e.g. The dilemma facing leaders in all areas of life is how to best assess these individuals to determine how to best harness heir capabilities to reach their ultimate productive capabilities. take advantage of … make its contribution to … 56. 消除;减轻 eliminate v. 排除,消除 ( eliminate the false and retain the true || eliminate the possibility of= preclude the possibility of) diminish v. 使减小,使变少 ( diminish one’s reputation || diminish the cost of production) undermine v.破坏,削弱 (formal study of the present culture at the expanse of studying past cultures can undermine the function of higher education, and ultimately provide a disservice to students and to society.) 57. 恶化;加剧 exacerbate v. 恶化, 增剧, 激怒, 使加剧, 使烦恼 e.g. This problems would only be exacerbated were these decisions left exclusively to federal regulators. e.g. a speech that exacerbated racial tensions || a heavy rainfall that exacerbated the flood problems. aggravate v. 58. 过度;过分 exorbitant adj.过度的; 过高的 (exorbitant rents || exorbitantly expensive || exorbitant amount of money) undue adj.过度的;过分的 (apply undue pressure to make s.b. change his mind) overemphasize v. 59. 导致、造成 pose 引起某事物,造成,提出 e.g. Winter poses particular difficulties for the elderly. e.g. However, a common curriculum that is also an exclusive one would pose certain problems.

render v.致使,造成 e.g. Your action has rendered our contract invalid. e.g. This trend renders a society’s members more vulnerable to demagoguery. breed v.导致;造成 e.g. The speaker unfairly suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding ground and sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions. e.g. Dirt breeds disease. || Unemployment breeds social unrest ( 社会不安定 ) . burgeon v.迅速发展;发芽 (burgeoning cities || burgeoning Internet commerce) outgrowth n.长出, 派出, 结果, 副产物 e.g. A third uniquely contemporary problem is an outgrowth of the inexorable advancement of scientific knowledge. e.g. Inflation is an outgrowth of war. 60. 探求、努力: seek to …探求,寻求 e.g. One compelling argument in favor of a global university has to do with the fact that its faculty and students would bring diverse cultural and educational perspectives to the problems they seek to solve. strive to …努力 e.g. students should strive to excel in the specific requirements of their major course of study probe v./n.探求,探查 e.g. probe a matter to the bottom e.g. Does his/her cultural background allows him/her to freely probe the intricacy of the work? e.g. Even in his philosophical probing he cannot go behind these stereotypes; his very concepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particular traditional customs. 61. 资助、赞助: subsidize v. 资 助 , 津 贴 ( Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of government.) patron n. 资 助 人 ; 赞 助 人 ( cultural patron) on the patronage of … e.g. culture has always depended primarily on the patronage of private individuals and businesses. under the auspices of … e.g. During this period, on significant scientific advances occurred under the auspices of the

government. 62. 增强、提高 escalate v.增强提高 (the escalating cost of addressing these problems) enhance/ promote/ augment / elevate v. ( … was elevating their notion about …) 63. 方法、途径: avenue n. 大 街 , 方 法 , 途 径 , 路 ( an avenue to success) approach n. 64. ostensible adj.表面上的 e.g. Today's high-tech firms seem compelled to boldly go to what effort is required to devise increasingly complex products, for the ostensible purpose of staying ahead of their 65. 获得;达到 ||||角度;方面 ||| 短暂/长远

||| 危险;危害 |||| 分配 ||||最后地; 最终地 acquire/gain/attain/achieve |||| angles/aspect/facet/side/respect |||| transient, ephemeral / enduring, permanent |||| menace, jeopardize, imperil, endanger |||| allocate/ distribute/ assign |||| eventually/ultimately


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